Other materials

This page is reserved for additional information that is made available by GeoCounsel.  Feel free to refer to it.  We welcome your references.  



Below is a list of documents that contain the definitive and tested equations (PDF) for the principal projections. 


Note that each document has two parts:  (1) Equations that calculate zone parameters that are only calculated once up front when projecting a group of points, and (2) Equations that are repeated for each point to be projected.  This is done to prevent unecessary duplication in the calculations. 


Provided are direct and inverse solutions.  


Lambert Direct :
Adobe Acrobat document [116.5 KB]
Lambert Direct Projection Program
Text document [14.6 KB]
Lambert Inverse:
Adobe Acrobat document [173.3 KB]
UTM Direct
Adobe Acrobat document [112.9 KB]
UTM Inverse
Adobe Acrobat document [97.1 KB]
ECEF Direct
Adobe Acrobat document [134.6 KB]
ECEF Inverse
Adobe Acrobat document [225.8 KB]


Below are other documents that may be of interest in geomatics:  


GPS Accuracy
GPS Accuracy.pdf
Adobe Acrobat document [1.3 MB]
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